Only countries with 100,000 or more are listed here. This exhaustive programme has also encountered some challenges. Ketan Patel, TCR Multispeciality Hospital, Krishnagiri, Tamil Nadu, India, Affiliation: Notably, The Hindu has a readership of 6,226,000 in India  and 1,880,000 in Tamil Nadu  and the Times of India has a readership of 5,650,000 nationwide and 1,150,000 in Tamil Nadu . Notably, India has been dubbed the “snakebite capital of the world” by some media outlets , due to the large number of deaths and disabilities occurring there as a result of SBE. , Since the end of World War II, efforts have been made both by the government and by the public to be more responsive to Aboriginal rights and needs. Tests of association were performed using Pearson’s Chi-squared test and Fisher’s Exact Test for count data with simulated p-value (based on 10,000 replicates) when the assumptions of the Chi-squared test failed. Soundararaj Chinnaraju, Affiliations: e0008911. , The earliest accepted timeline for the first arrivals of indigenous Australians to the continent of Australia places this human migration to at least 65,000 years ago, most probably from the islands of Indonesia and New Guinea.. The total fertility rate is the number of children born per woman. Arumugam says that his organisation, with a dozen other Tamil associations, played an active role in getting Tamils in Australia to â¦ During the Great Depression, the rate declined to a low of 7.1 per thousand population in 1934 and 1935. Moreover, although we had been informed by some of the study participants that either themselves or their relatives were bitten by snakes, we did not officially collect any details about snakebite incidents among the students and rural people who attended our activities as this was beyond the scope of this current study. Significant differences were observed in arrival times at the hospital between the 2018 and 2019 data (Fig 6C) with 276 (95%) arriving in under four hours in 2019, compared to the corresponding figure of 135 (60.5%) in 2018. Although Australia has no official language, English has always been entrenched as the de facto national language. , Australia's population has grown from an estimated population of between 300,000 and 1,000,000 Indigenous Australians at the time of British settlement in 1788 due to numerous waves of immigration during the period since. It is also one of the most highly populated Indian states with a population of around 72 million, of which over half (37 million people) live in rural areas with the majority reliant on agriculture-based occupations for their livelihoods . In each location, an audience of around 100–300 people were received, depending on the time of the day. To compare the data before and after our activities, we also analysed TCR Hospital’s SBE patient admissions records from 2018. Interestingly, analysis of our Facebook advertisements showed that 99% of the 2.5 million hits were via mobile phones, which recognises the widespread availability of smart phones and high-speed internet at affordable prices. The 2019 hospital admissions data subsequently recorded that 60% of the people arriving at this hospital with suspected snakebites were aware of our activities, all of whom had arrived within 4 hours. Although the population as a whole is aware of the danger of snakes and snakebites (including venomous and dry bites), the majority of people, including some healthcare professionals, were not aware of how to respond to snakes or snakebites. If these regions are excluded and only Australia and New Zealand are counted, the population total drops to under 30 million. The study locations were selected to cover a wide range of geographical regions (such as coastal, terrestrial, forest, dry and humid areas) across the state where agriculture is the predominant occupation. These are; (1) stay calm following a bite and move away slowly from the snake to avoid another bite, (2) do not attempt to attack or kill the snake, (3) call for help or walk to get help if necessary, (4) avoid running as this may increase the rate at which the venom spreads through the body, (5) remove any jewellery or tight-fitting clothes from the bitten limb as it may start to swell, (6) do not tie a rope or cloth above the bite site, (7) do not cut and bleed or suck the bite site, (8) get to a hospital as quickly as possible and (9) do not waste time on traditional remedies because they are ineffective. However, in 2006 the fertility rate rose to 1.81, one of the highest rates in the OECD. Hence, further training and educational sessions for rural healthcare professionals will change the views and practice of these essential frontline workers in fighting SBE. M. Fazil Baksh, We also did not ask the study participants if they had a chance to apply the knowledge that they gained during any snakebite incidents over the one-year period. The number of correct answers were converted into percentages for easy comparison. This video reached over 80,000 people within 24 hours and over 330,000 views within one week of being uploaded, with around 7,200 people sharing the video to their own Facebook networks. Malaysia: 1,800,000 Further written feedback indicated that some participants would like hands on training about appropriate first aid measures for SBE and some suggested having this event over two or three days in the future with additional topics related to SBE covered. We are able to translate a wide range of languages including Tamil, Indonesia, Slovak, Italian, French, Chinese, German, Spanish, Portuguese, Japanese, and Vietnamese, etc. 5–10 year-old children in primary schools, 11–15 year-old students in secondary schools, 16–18 year-old students in higher secondary schools, and 18 or above in colleges/universities. At that time, the indigenous population was estimated to have been between 315,000 and 750,000, divided into as many as 500 tribes speaking many different languages. Prevention is better than cure—therefore a small amount of government spending on this and funding from NGOs to improve awareness about snakes and SBE could significantly reduce the treatment costs if people were to seek prompt treatment without practicing inappropriate first aid or ineffective traditional treatments. C, the time taken to reach the hospital following bites. Additional leaflets were distributed via hospitals, small clinics, public health centres, pharmacies, supermarkets, police and forest offices even in locations where the team had no established links. "The Macquarie Dictionary", Fourth Edition. In all locations, additional leaflets were distributed through clinics, hospitals, pharmacies and supermarkets and therefore our reach would be higher than we have estimated through attendance at our events. , Today, most of Australia's Indigenous population live on the east coast of Australia, where almost 60% of Indigenous Australians live in New South Wales (208,476) and Queensland (188,954) which roughly represents 2–5% of those state's populations. However, a mature debate about population growth and its environmental effects may be a little easier today than ten years ago. Australia contains five cities that consist of over one million people. However, during the daytime sessions, only a brief talk and Q&A session was organised (totalling around 30 minutes). For the remaining 35 districts, we aimed to visit at least 2–3 villages in each district, and between 2–4 educational institutions in proximity to these villages. Hence, the government of Tamil Nadu could consider to improve the treatment-seeking behaviour of people in government hospitals for SBE and/or increase the insurance coverage allowing them to seek prompt treatment in private hospitals at free of charge. Crude birth rates, states and territories, 1860 onwards", "3105.0.65.001 - Australian Historical Population Statistics, 2008 - 4. The situation has become an emergency ) [ 14,15 ] as Auslan, is! Of law ) and Indian wolf snake ) and Indian wolf snake ) Prospects [ ]... The entire period and subsequent evaluation to visually illustrate the knowledge of people used ( or not used first... Data were analysed anonymously red ) our SBE activities ( n = 2,004 ) some. 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